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2012年12月12日水曜日

気になった一文集(English ver. No. 6)

Yet its availability, or its distribution around the globe, may well change as the planet becomes warmer, more crowded and increasingly developed.

With rising pressures on extraction both from an expanding population and rising per-head consumption, groundwater depletion is spreading.

Crucially, water is difficult to transfer across catchment basins and aquifers: transporting worthwhile quantities of water usually requires large amounts of energy.


Nature Geoscience 編集部「Scarce resource」Dec 2012, pp. 835
地下水資源の減少を受けて

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But all indicators from the work suggest that the authors have uncovered one of the most miserable and deadly time periods the planet has ever seen.

Some accused the authors of being part of a conspiracy to create more fear about modern global warming. These commenters apparently missed the irony that a description of events 250 million years old with effectively no similarities with the present day would be poor propaganda indeed for modern climate discussions.


Nature Geoscience記事「Heat and death」Dec 2012, pp. 843
P/T境界における温暖化と大量絶滅を受けて

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"What happens in the Arctic doesn’t stay in the Arctic"

To understand the threat hidden within permafrost, it’s time for more scientists to get their boots dirty.

Sciencemag 「Ticking Arctic Carbon Bomb May Be Bigger Than Thought」7 Dec, 2012
ツンドラの融解と大規模な炭素放出の可能性について

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We have been making instrumental measurements for less than 0.1 millionth of Earth’s history; so in order to gain a better perspective on the rates and amplitudes of change, we need to look further back in the past using geologic records.

Palaeoceanography has the potential to underpin our understanding of how the Earth system works. 
pp. 5540:古気候・古海洋学をやる意義について

Publications should include the complete radiocarbon dataset, with the calibration curve used, the reservoir age and any other relevant metadata so that the ages and associated age model can be readily reassessed when further information as to the history of radiocarbon is acquired. The uncertainty should be fully quantified and include proper documentation of the reservoir ages.
pp. 5552 - 53:放射性炭素の年代を正しく論文に記述する必要性

…given that perfect archives of the past do not exist. Obviously, we must be more selective in our efforts, and choose the targets of our research wisely.
pp. 5554:古気候研究の戦略

Whatever happens, the mutual interactions between theory, modelling and palaeo-proxy data look set to continue to play a key role in future developments. 
pp. 5559:モデルと古気候研究

Robinson & Siddal, 2012, Philosophical Transactions (A)

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If you buy a set of chess figures carved from ivory, you can suspect that you have contributed to killing an elephant. But if you buy a sausage, you cannot know whether the pig that was turned into the sausage was fed soy meal sourced from a farm that had just expanded into elephant habitat.

2012 Editors' choice「REMOTE RESPONSIBILITY」Edgar Hertwich (Nature 486, 36-37; 2012)

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... since the IPCC started in 1988, climate science has grown into a wide, multidisciplinary field. The number of studies and their level of complexity have all increased by orders of magnitude, as a natural consequence of scientific progress.

Climate services have the task of preparing information on climate-related issues for local communities, regional policymakers, practitioners and the public, but that information will need to reflect the context of continuing global climate change.


Adapting the assessments」 (Nature Geoscience, Jan 2012) Thomas F. Stocker
IPCCの役割のこれまでと今後。

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Today we know that its adverse effects are not restricted to shell-forming organisms.

Even though many uncertainties about the impacts of ocean acidification on marine life remain, we now know enough to predict with reasonable confidence that significant changes in marine ecosystems and biodiversity will occur within our lifetimes, if the oceans continue to acidify at the current rate.


A steep learning curve」 (Nature Geoscience, Jan 2012) Ulf Riebesell
海洋酸性化研究の現状

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… the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and the International Energy Agency have both warned that the next five years may be the last real chance to reverse climate change before it’s too late.

Lifting livestock’s long shadow」 (Nature Climate Change, Jan 2012, pp. 3)
気候変動緩和に向けて、カギになるのは今後5年間。

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