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2012年10月3日水曜日

気になった一文集(English ver. No.3)

Climate scientists should be prepared for their skills one day to be probed in court.

Event attribution is one of the proposed ‘climate services’ — seasonal climate prediction is another — that are intended to provide society with the information needed to manage the risks and costs associated with climate change.


Evaluation of how often a climate model produces a good representation of the type of event in question, and whether it does so for the right reasons, must become integral to any attribution exercise. And when communicating their results, scientists must be open about shortcomings in the models used.

Nature編集部 (Vol. 489, pp. 335-336)
地球温暖化に対する気候変動学者の説明責任について

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Science news is rarely considered a day-to-day essential.

Nature Geoscience (Sep 2012, pp. 589) 「The journalist’s take
ホッケースティック曲線が発表された時のメディアや社会の対応について

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Now that the problem has been identified and investigated quantitatively, it is time to act.

Nature Geoscience (Sep 2012, pp. 591) 「Supply and demand
地下水資源の枯渇問題を受けて

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…the obvious policy question must be whether the biosphere can support the 40% increase in global population projected for 2050 and beyond.

Crop production exceeds the natural ecosystem when augmented with irrigation and fertilizer applications. Cropland under irrigation has roughly doubled in the last 50 years, and fertilizer use has increased by 500%.

As some rivers are completely drained for agriculture and groundwater withdrawal limits are reached in some regions, irrigated crop area could decrease in coming decades.

The question is thus not whether humans will reach the global NPP boundary but when we will do so.

Science (Vol. 337, pp. 1459)「A Measurable Planetary Boundary for the Biosphere
人類が生物資源を消費尽くしていること、将来も消費し続けることについて

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To effectively reduce emissions, societies need to focus on reducing the consumption of energy at both the individual/household level and the system level, with strategies geared towards broader changes in the economic, political and cultural spheres.

Nature Climate Change (June 2012 pp. 399) 「Analysing fossil-fuel displacement
化石燃料に変わる再生可能エネルギーへの転換について

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Can you believe that the decisions you make today could continue to impact the climate 1,000 years from now? There are a growing number of researchers making that connection.

Owing to slow geological processes and interactions with the land and deep-ocean carbon reservoirs, it has been estimated that about one-third of the carbon dioxide emitted today will still be in the atmosphere 1,000 years from now.


Nature Climate Change (June 2012, pp. 397) 「Future impact of today’s choices
現在の二酸化炭素排出が今後何年間地球の気候に影響を与え続けるかの予測について

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Buddhism teaches that all things are interconnected; such an ecological world- view makes for agreeable partnership with conservation scientists.

Religion, however, is a powerful moral force that can succeed where science cannot in guiding sociopolitical action and economic behavior to achieve conservation goals.


Science記事(Vol. 337, pp. 1604)「Religiously Protecting Myanmar’s Environment
仏教と気候変動。

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Even the latest climate models clearly aren’t getting it right, still calling for the Arctic Ocean to retain substantial summer ice well toward the end of the century.

…the full knock-on effects of an ice-free Arctic Ocean—from the loss of polar bear habitat to possible increases of weather extremes at mid-latitudes—could be here in many people’s lifetimes.

Science記事(Vol. 337, pp. 1591)「Ice-Free Arctic Sea May Be Years, Not Decades, Away
数十年先ではなく、数年先に北極の夏の海氷がなくなる可能性について。

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But what might seems to be a simple relationship — the more CO2 in the atmosphere, the more plants will photosynthesize and grow — is often not so straightforward.

While everything else is rapidly moving around it, the soil (in texture at least) remains the same.


Nature Climate Change記事(October 2012, pp. 711)「Soil mediation in grasslands
CO2濃度上昇に対する植物の光合成・生育量の変化について