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2012年11月29日木曜日

気になった一文集(English ver. No.5)

Contrary to the idea that scientific knowledge is central to such change, they show that informing these people about the expected impacts of climate change had no effect on their positions. What did change the positions was thinking about how limiting greenhouse-gas emissions might promote interpersonal warmth and scientific and technological progress.

Climate change has always been, in part, an emotional issue.

Danger reduction is most likely if a message suggests practical actions that the recipients can take, actions that they believe would actually help to prevent the feared outcomes. When no such actions seem available, recipients typically reduce the fear without reducing the danger, perhaps by denying that there is anything to fear or concluding that the fear appeal was a manipulation attempt by an untrustworthy source.


Nature Climate Change (August 2012,  pp. 572-573) 「Fear and hope in climate messages
気候変動に懐疑的な立場の人の心理について

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The Antarctic Peninsula is already at the vanguard of climate change—and may be approaching the point of no return. “It might be a good place to develop a capability to predict when the Earth system is close to the tipping point,” Ducklow says. “It’s like the canary in a coal mine for what’s coming for the rest of the planet.”

Science (Vol. 338 pp. 879-881)「Slip Sliding Away
南極周辺の近年の気候変動の総まとめ。

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Despite a rising share for renewables, fossil fuels would remain dominant, the agency added. In its central scenario to 2035, oil, coal and gas together make up 75% of the global energy mix (down from 81% today).

For all the increased energy use, some 1.3 billion people mainly in sub-Saharan Africa and south-east Asia still have no access to electricity, the IEA said; it projects that this will fall only slightly to 1 billion by 2030.


NATURE NEWS BLOG: IEA calls for focus on energy efficiency
IEAの再生可能エネルギーの割合に関する将来予測

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"It is my hope that this report shocks us into action. Even for those of us already committed to fighting climate change, I hope it causes us to work with much more urgency," writes Kim, who is the first scientist to head the bank.

scienceinsider: World Bank (Again) Warns of Developmental Setbacks From Climate Change
新たに世界銀行の頭首になったKim氏の気候変動に対する立場について

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An eight-year wait for action would seem to put the warming goal firmly out of reach.

Unfortunately, the potential gains are dispersed throughout a complex marketplace that tends to reward short-term thinking.

Buildings are responsible for roughly one-third of global greenhouse- gas emissions, but builders have no incentive to invest in energy-efficient technologies if tenants and owners will foot the energy bill.
Stabilizing the climate will require monumental efforts on all fronts, and governments should recognize that money spent now on curbing greenhouse-gas emissions is a long-term investment that will pay off down the road.

Nature(Vol. 491 pp. 637-638)「A way to buy time
京都議定書が2013年1月に失効することを受けて

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A graphic view of the world's energy resources shows just how difficult it will be to wean the planet off fossil fuels.

Rather than a dead end, Kyoto could prove to be a first step towards an eventual solution.

Nature(Vol. 491 pp. 653)「Legacy of a climate treaty: After Kyoto
京都議定書の成果と実際について

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It provides a solid answer to the whole scientific community and the general public that over the last 20 years, the polar ice sheets did contribute to global mean sea-level rise by a significant amount.

Nature News 「Grim picture of polar ice-sheet loss
極域の氷床が確かに融解しており、海水準上昇に寄与していることを受けて