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2012年11月3日土曜日

気になった一文集(English ver. No.4)

Overall, habitat loss, pollution and invasive species represented the biggest threats to invertebrate diversity around the world.

What is known is that things are changing, and we need to continue monitoring and adapting to these changes.


無脊椎動物の絶滅の危機について

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Political decisions need to be based on reasoned and constructive discussion about issues as controversial as renewable biofuels, which in turn must be based on strong, peer-reviewed science.

Nature記事(vol. 490, pp. 37)「European biodiesel can be sustainable
持続可能なバイオ燃料生産を巡る問題について

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There is something captivating about the idea that fine particulate matter, suspended almost invisibly in the atmosphere, holds the key to some of the greatest mysteries of climate science.

Our poor understanding of the global effect of aerosols on clouds means that the incorporation of additional details into climate models does not make the models fundamentally better or more reliable, just more complex. Additional complexity can be great fun, but it should not disguise the fact that, at least for aerosol–cloud interactions, much is speculative, and the results of such complex models should be taken with a grain of salt.

Nature記事(vol. 490, pp. 40)「Grains of salt
エアロゾルの雲の形成や気候に与える過程を気候モデルに取り込むことの難しさについて

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One approach to leaping those limitations is to go back to the future, by looking for times in the fossil record when ocean ecosystems experienced similarly dramatic carbon dioxide–driven changes.

Science記事(Vol. 338, pp. 27)「Researchers Struggle to Assess Responses to Ocean Acidification
海洋酸性化研究のアプローチの仕方について〜過去に目を向ける〜

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It is high time that our understanding of the role of rivers in climate and carbon cycle dynamics caught up with the changes that are afoot.

Nature Geoscience編集部(October 2012)「Rivers in transition
河川が全球の生物地球科学循環(特に炭素循環)に与える影響について

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There are objective truths hidden under the cloak of subjectivity that we all use to shroud our reasoning. Temperatures really have risen, and the oceans really are more acidic, whether we want this to be true or not. No credible attempt to communicate climate change should perpetrate falsehoods, or ignore the facts

The facts and figures of climate science slot into a complex social, political and moral context that exerts a formidable influence on whether, and to what extent, people let the risks of climate change sink in.


Nature Climate Change記事(October 2012 pp. 711)「Science literacy and climate views
気候変動に対する科学の素養がある人の立場について

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Like the perfect Martini, the Moon has a reputation for being dry.

Nature記事(Vol. 490, pp. 346-347)「Galvanized lunacy
亜鉛の同位体から明らかになる月の起源について

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Since about 1980, a vast amount of time and energy has been devoted by scientists in the field of radiocarbon dating to calibration of the radiocarbon time-scale (Damonet al., 1980).

Jull et al., 2012, Quaternary International
放射性炭素年代測定をめぐる諸問題について

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Are we really going to have a colony on the Moon? Do we really plan on escaping to the stars? We have a few challenges here on Earth that we need to face before we can ever truly fulfill those dreams.

Science記事(Vol. 338, pp. 467)「A Curiosity Moment for Tropical Biology?」Charles H. Cannon
熱帯雨林の研究を促進すべきだということ

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Earth scientists can only help in a meaningful way with solving the challenges of the twenty-first century if they collaborate closely with scientists from the more applied sciences, such as engineering, as well as the life sciences, social sciences and humanities.

In the past decade, the combined impact of human activities — global warming, droughts and floods, biodiversity loss, degradation of water quality and the depletion of fish stocks and minerals, to name but a few — have led to the suggestion that we have entered a new geological era that is dominated by humans, the Anthropocene.

Earth scientists are needed to help find solutions to pressing environmental problems, evaluate mitigation and adaptation options, inform efforts at stewardship of our planet, and develop scenarios for possible future states of the Earth.

Earth scientists will have to take on the role as participants in a broader team of researchers, rather than as observers or advisors, as is currently more familiar.

not all Earth scientists need to engage in this way; but it is critical that enough people with the capacity to understand the Earth step up to the challenge of informing the design of ‘the future we want’.

by fully integrating themselves in the efforts from all corners of global society towards a sustainable future, Earth scientists can — and should — play an essential part.


Nature Geosciences (Sep 2012, pp. 587-588) 「Earth science for sustainability」Peter Schlosser & Stephanie Pfirman
持続可能な社会の実現に向けて地球科学者がとるべき立場・姿勢など