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気になった一文集(English ver. No. 28)

Food-waste reduction campaigns encourage consumers to become more aware of the extent and consequences of food waste and how adopting small, daily behavioral changes (such as checking the fridge prior to shopping) can help to tackle the problem.

Food-waste reduction efforts should not distract public attention from the fact that buying less meat—particularly red meat—is even more effective for reducing both carbon emissions and pressure on our natural resources.

A broad range of efforts are needed to move toward sustainable food security for all, and each individual consumer contributes both to the problem and the solution.

Waste not, want not, emit lessScience 352, 408–409 (22 Apr 2016) "Perspective"


The long residence time of an anthropogenic CO2 perturbation in the atmosphere, combined with the inertia of the climate system, implies that past, current, and future emissions commit the planet to long-term, irreversible climate change. As a result, many key features of future climate change are relatively certain in the long term, even if the precise timing of their occurrence is uncertain.

This long-term view shows that the next few decades offer a brief window of opportunity to minimize large-scale and potentially catastrophic climate change that will extend longer than the entire history of human civilization thus far. Policy decisions made during this window are likely to result in changes to Earth’s climate system measured in millennia rather than human lifespans, with associated socioeconomic and ecological impacts that will exacerbate the risks and damages to society and ecosystems that are projected for the twenty-first century and propagate into the future for many thousands of years.

(…) even if carbon emissions are stabilized or reduced, atmospheric CO2 concentrations and surface temperatures would remain high and sea level would continue to increase for millennia.

Model projections based on the RCPs and each of the four emission scenarios shown in Fig. 1 indicate that twenty-first century global average warming will substantially exceed even the warmest Holocene conditions, producing a climate state not previously experienced by human civilizations.

Consequences of twenty-first-century policy for multi-millennial climate and sea-level change」Clark et al., 2016, Nature Climate Change "Perspective"


It is natural to view the changes at this northernmost point in Antarctica as part of the inexorable southward march of anthropogenic climate change.

the oft-heard claim that the peninsula is the fastest-warming place on Earth is accurate only during the winter, as recorded at the Faraday/Vernadsky station on the west coast.

Although recent changes in the peninsula’s climate have been large, the natural decadal-scale variability is also large, making short-term fluctuations inherently unpredictable even in the presence of strong forcing.

This, combined with the large magnitude of natural variability, suggests that anthropogenic climate change may not be unambiguously detectable in Antarctica for several more decades.

Looking at surface-air temperatures13 collected for more than 60 years, the long-term trend is one of warming.

Cooling in the AntarcticNature 535, 358–359 (21 July 2016) "News & Views"


(...) to complicate matters further, species’ climate sensitivity is not fixed. The phenological mismatches lead to selection on the timing of phenological events. And, because phenology is often heritable, this leads to genetic change in sensitivity.

Interactions of climate change and speciesNature 535, 236–237 (14 July 2016) "News & Views"


If cheap oil becomes the new normal, there may be no price constraint to prevent burning of the remaining underground oil and gas resources. In such a world, carbon emissions could continue to grow, and temperatures may rise to significant levels if no action is taken.

They find that long-term oil prices have a significant impact on cumulative emissions: low oil prices hamper climate mitigation action whereas high oil prices boost it.

Cheap oil slows climate mitigationNature Climate Change 6, 660–661 (2016)  "News & Views"


Haumann and colleagues’ findings emphasize that Antarctic sea ice is not merely a passive indicator of climate change and variability, but also a driver of changes in the climate system. Through its potential influence on ocean stratification and CO2 uptake, sea ice might have a bigger role than previously thought.

Southern Ocean freshened by sea iceNature 537, 40–41 (01 September 2016) "News & Views"


The question is not whether Arctic changes are affecting mid-latitudes but rather how and by how much. Framing studies in this way will avoid polarization and aid progress. It is encouraging to see recent collaborations between scientists from what might be considered opposing camps; this sort of productive interaction will move the science, and with it the public discourse, forward.

Effects of a warming ArcticScience 353, 989-990 (02 Sep 2016) "Perspective"


Different phytoplankton groups have evolved various physiological strategies that allow them to thrive in marine environments ranging from freezing, nutrient-rich polar waters to warm, nutrient-poor subtropical ocean deserts.

Few long-term time series of pelagic phytoplankton community composition exist, because phytoplankton sampling is costly and laborious and many ocean regions are vast and remote. Laboratory studies often focus on monocultures of a few strains and thus cannot fully capture ecosystem responses, in which physiological changes at the individual level are inextricably linked to changes in the relative fitness of different taxa in a changing environment.

(...) but global warming and ocean acidification may well act in concert to restructure future Pacific phytoplankton communities.

Adrift in an ocean of changeScience 350, 1466-1468 (18 Dec 2015) "Perspective"