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気になった一文集(English ver. No. 25)

Ocean data are expensive to collect. Ships are costly to build, equally so to run. But to neglect the oceans because it is cheaper to get good results on land is foolish.

Deep mysteriesNature 517, 244 (15 January 2015). "EDITORIAL"


If scientists want to bolster their credibility on the subject of global warming, the authors say, then they must harness the power of the Internet and reduce the time they spend in the air.

But the Tyndall Centre is right to point out that senior researchers probably do not need to fly halfway around the globe simply to present a paper at a conference.

In some ways, the working paper opens the door to questions that are even harder to answer. Do scientists have a responsibility to stop eating meat, given what we know about the greenhouse-gas intensity of beef production and to a lesser extent that of pork and chicken? Should we expect them to park their cars and take the bus or train instead? The fact is that these are personal choices that academics, like everybody else, must grapple with.

... scientists have a key role in making that happen, even if it means hopping on a flight to the next United Nations climate summit.

A clean, green science machineNature 519, 261  (18 March 2015) "EDITORIAL"


“The real question is whether or not the high-income countries, the big polluting countries, are willing to pay loss and damages to countries that bear the brunt of the impacts,” she says. “Vulnerable countries have no other leverage within this political process.”

At the same time, a growing body of research suggests that ecological and economic impacts are already occurring with the 0.8 °C of warming that has already occurred. These impacts will increase in severity as temperatures rise.

In both cases, governments must take immediate and aggressive action to start to steer the global emissions curve away from its upward trajectory.

Global-warming limit of 2 °C hangs in the balance」Nature News (27 March 2015)


The negotiations’ goal has become what is politically possible, not what is environmentally desirable.

The climate policy mantra — that time is running out for 2 °C but we can still make it if we act now — is a scientific nonsense. Advisers who shy away from saying so squander their scientific reputations and public trust in climate research.


Climate advisers must maintain integrityNature 521, 27–28 (07 May 2015) "Comment"


It has been clear for some time that climate change is a defining social, and therefore political, issue for the twenty-first century. (…) But the core science is solid, and policy-makers at all levels have a responsibility to engage with it.

(…) 63% of Americans believe that global warming is happening and 52% think that it is mostly caused by humans; just 18% think that it is not happening, with 32% believing that it is mostly due to natural environmental factors.

The rest of the world has moved beyond questions about whether climate change is real and is focused on how best to address it.

The right climateNature 522, 255–256 (18 June 2015) “Editorial


The representation of biogeochemical processes in the CESM is advanced, but many feedbacks to those processes are uncertain or not represented. These include the impacts of ocean acidification, warming, increased levels of dissolved CO2 and a potential increase in the volume of low-oxygen zones on marine ecosystems, biological productivity, the production of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide, the export of biogenic particles from the surface to the deep ocean, and their sinking velocity and decomposition rate.

Data for past variations in CO2 levels and climate can help us to avoid relying exclusively on models to project future trends. Although palaeoclimatic information cannot be directly used to assess how climate change affects the flow of anthropogenic carbon, it does reveal how the natural carbon cycle alters.

A long-standing research challenge is to develop Earth system models that perform seamless simulations from the past to the future, consistently integrating palaeoclimatic and modern instrumental information in projections.

(…) carbon emitted today will change our environment irreversibly for many generations to come, and these changes increase hand in hand with cumulative carbon emissions. Sea level and the ocean’s acidity and carbon and heat content — and the associated adverse effects — will continue to increase long after atmospheric CO2 levels have stabilized, underscoring the need for near-term emission reduction.

(…) carbon-emission reductions are urgently needed if we are to limit global warming and ocean acidification to moderate levels. Any delay will narrow and eventually close the currently available window to meet stringent climate targets.

Growing feedback from ocean carbon to climateNature 522, 295–296 (18 June 2015)


 (…) during recent interglacial periods, small increases in global mean temperature and just a few degrees of polar warming relative to the preindustrial period resulted in ≥6 m of GMSL rise.

emerging geochemical and geophysical techniques show promise for identifying the sectors of the ice sheets that were most vulnerable to collapse in the past and perhaps will be again in the future.

Addressing outstanding questions and challenges regarding rates, magnitudes, and sources of past polar ice-sheet loss and resulting sea-level rise will continue to require integration of ice-sheet, sea-level, and solid Earth geophysical studies with good spatial distribution of well-dated RSL records to capture the magnitude of RSL variability across the globe.

Sea-level rise due to polar ice-sheet mass loss during past warm periods
Dutton et al. (2015, Science)