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気になった一文集(English ver. No. 30)

Trump may have breathed life into the project, but its future remains uncertain. The drop in global oil prices has reduced the short-term profitability of the tar sands, and the long term is even murkier, given the global trend towards low-carbon energy.

Renewable energies such as solar and wind are on the rise in the United States and abroad, and are now attracting more investment than fossil fuels. Coal’s US decline is likely to continue regardless of Trump’s promises, because the fuel is losing out to cheap natural gas, falling prices for renewables, and air-quality regulations that would be exceedingly hard to dismantle.

The irony is that the United States was the lead proponent of the Paris framework, which is essentially a collection of voluntary pledges. As a result, it could be hard for the Trump administration to push its agenda onto other countries.


Later this year, the world's largest conservation area of any kind will come into force, protecting 1.55 million square kilometres of the Ross Sea in Antarctica. This means that nine of the ten largest protected areas on Earth will be marine. Still, the combined coverage of designated and implemented MPAs currently accounts for just 4% of total ocean area, compared with 15% on land.

They should take note of Gill and colleagues' study, because it provides a timely warning that rapid expansion of protected areas by itself will not provide desired outcomes if there are large shortfalls in our capacity to manage, monitor and finance those areas.

There is certainly no easy recipe for success, but global meta-analyses such as that of Gill et al. and others will help us to further constrain what is needed to heal the ocean, and to provide long-term benefits to people.

How to heal an oceanNature 543, 630–631 (30 March 2017)


An explosion of ocean observations from the Argo float network, for example, solidified understanding that it is the heat content of the entire system, not just air temperature, that matters to measurements of global change.

Increased scrutiny of climate-change models should be welcomedNature 545, 6 (04 May 2017) “Nature Editorial”


Yet reefs are degrading rapidly in response to numerous anthropogenic drivers. In the coming centuries, reefs will run the gauntlet of climate change, and rising temperatures will transform them into new configurations, unlike anything observed previously by humans. Returning reefs to past configurations is no longer an option. Instead, the global challenge is to steer reefs through the Anthropocene era in a way that maintains their biological functions.

Second, we consider whether current experimental evaluations of the impact of rising temperatures and ocean acidification are appropriately calibrated for simulating future conditions.

Coral reefs in the AnthropoceneNature 546, 82–90 (01 June 2017)


If we have learned anything from the decline of coral reefs in the Caribbean, it is that irreversible changes in coral communities may go unnoticed until it is too late.

U-Th dating reveals regional-scale decline of branching Acropora corals on the Great Barrier Reef over the past century」Tara R. Clark et al. 2017 (PNAS 114, 10350–10355)


Worldwide, there are about half a million ships in operation, together producing almost one billion tonnes of carbon dioxide each year. That’s between 2% and 3% of the global total, and more CO2 than Germany emits annually.

As a global business, shipping must be tackled by global regulations, and not through a patchwork of voluntary efforts and regional laws.

When it comes to the impact on climate, there is no excuse for delay. Emissions from shipping largely escape the public scrutiny and criticism attracted by those from aviation. 

Lower emissions on the high seasNature 551, 5–6 (02 November 2017)